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IDEALS    OF   LIFE                          107
marriage and the home, and a glorification of motherhood. This view of sex is but one manifestation of the entire Confucian theory about passions, as stated by Tzussu, Confucius's grandson, in Chung Tung (The Golden Mean), which emphasizes moderation with regard to all the seven passions.
That such an attitude is a difficult thing is well demonstrated by what an Oriental calls the excesses of Western theories. It is all too easy for man to be enslaved by nationalism, fascism, socialism or communism, which are all consequences of the excesses of industrialism, and forget that the state exists for the individual and not the individual for the state. A communist state in which the human individual is regarded but as a member of a class or a state organism would at once lose its attractiveness by the Confucian appeal to the true end of human life. Against all systems as such, the human individual asserts his right to exist and seek happiness. For more important than all the political rights is man's right to happiness. A fascist China would have a hard time persuading the Chinese gentleman that the strength of the nation is more important than the welfare of the individual. Close observers of the communist state when it was set up in Kiangse offer as the greatest reason why Communism must fail in China, in spite of its great superiority over the feudalism of other parts, the fact that life was too systematized and too inhuman there.
An equally undesirable effect of the Chinese spirit of reasonableness and its consequent hatred of logical extremes has been that the Chinese, as a race, are unable to have any faith in a system. For a system, a machine, is always inhuman, and the Chinese hate anything inhuman. The hatred of any mechanistic view of the law and government is so great that it has made government by law impossible in China. A rigorous, harshly legalistic regime, or a really impersonal administration of the law, has always failed among us. It has failed because it was not liked by the people. The conception of a government by law was propounded and developed by thinkers in the third century B.C. It was tried by Shang Yang, a wonderfully efficient administrator, who helped to build the power of the Ch'in state, but eventually Shang Yang had to pay for his efficiency with his life. It had worked in Shang Yang's country,